Treceti pest recomandarile de margarina&co ca si snacks.
Citatele de mai jos sunt din capitolul 8 Complementary feeding
Imi pare rau ca nu am timpul necesar sa le traduc, dar poate voi reveni la ele, ulterior.
It is essential to encourage infants to develop eating skills, such as chewing and bringing objects to the mouth, at the appropriate stages. If these skills are not acquired early, behavioural and feeding prob- lems may occur later on.
Nutrient density and bioavailability
The quantity of nutrients available for infant growth and development depends on both the amount in breast-milk and transitional foods and their bioavailability.
Bioavailability is defined as the absorbability of nutrients and their availability for utilization for metabolic purposes, while nutrient density is the amount of a nutrient per unit of energy, such as 100 kJ, or per unit of weight, such as 100 g.
There are major differences between the nutrient density and bioavailability of micronutrients in animal products and plant-derived foods. Per unit of energy, animal products usually contain more of certain nutrients such as vitamins A, D and E, riboflavin, vitamin B12, calcium and zinc. The iron content of some animal products (such as liver, meat, fish, and poultry) is high, whereas that of others (milk and dairy products) is low. In contrast, the densities of thiamin, vitamin B6, folic acid and vitamin C are generally higher in plants and some, such as legumes and maize, also contain substan- tial amounts of iron. In general, however, the bioavailability of minerals from plant products is poor compared with that from animal products.
Micronutrients that have poor bioavailability when consumed in plant products include iron, zinc, calcium and β-carotene in leafy and some other vegetables. In addition, the absorption of β-carotene, vitamin A and other fat-soluble vitamins is impaired when diets are low in fat.
To ensure that the energy and nutrient needs of growing children are ful- filled, they should be offered a wide variety of foods of high nutritional value. Moreover, it is possible that offering children a more varied diet improves their appetite. Although patterns of food consumption vary from meal to meal, children adjust their energy intake at successive meals so that overall daily energy intake is normally relatively constant. Nevertheless, there is also some variation in energy intake from day to day. Despite having preferences, when offered a range of foods children tend to select a variety, including the preferred ones, to make a nutritionally complete diet.
A number of organoleptic features, such as flavour, aroma, appearance and texture, may affect the infant’s intake of transitional foods. Taste buds detect four primary taste qualities: sweet, bitter, salt and sour. Sensitivity to taste helps protect against the ingestion of harmful substances and, in addi- tion, can help regulate a child’s intake. While children do not need to learn to like sweet or salty foods there is substantial evidence that children’s preferences for the majority of other foods are strongly influenced by learn- ing and experience (16). The only innate preference in humans is for the sweet taste, and even newborn infants avidly consume sweet substances. This can be a problem, because children develop a preference in relation to the frequency of exposure to particular tastes. Rejection of all foods except sweet ones will limit the variety of a child’s intake of food and nutrients.
Children appear to consume more when they receive a varied diet compared with a monotonous one. It is important that children, for whom all foods are initially unfamiliar, have repeated exposure to new foods during the complementary feeding period in order to establish a healthy food accept- ance pattern. It has been suggested that a minimum of 8–10 exposures are needed, with clear increases in food acceptance appearing after 12–15 expo- sures (17). Parents should thus be reassured that refusal is normal. Foods should be offered repeatedly, as those that are initially rejected are often accepted later. If the child’s initial rejection is interpreted as unchangeable, the food will probably not be offered to the child again and the opportunity for exposure to new foods and tastes will be lost.
The process of complementary feeding depends on the infant learning to enjoy new foods. Breastfed infants may accept solid foods more rapidly than those fed on commercial infant formula, as they have become used to a range of flavours and odours transmitted via the mother’s milk (18). paginile 180 si 181
Diets with high nutrient bioavailability are diverse and contain generous amounts of legumes and foods rich in vitamin C, combined with small amounts of meat, fish and poultry. Diets with low nutrient bioavailability consist mainly of cereals, legumes and roots with negligible quantities of meat, fish or vitamin C-rich foods. pagina 180
Mama lu’ Ana și a lu’ Alex